Overview of Anemia and Hyperkalemia Complicating the Care of CKD Patients
ISN Academy. Pollock C. 04/24/19; 272230 Topic: Chronic kidney disease
Prof. Carol Pollock
Prof. Carol Pollock
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Learning Objectives
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Hyperkalemia is one of the most common electrolyte abnormalities in patients with CKD and ESRD, and it is associated with increased risk of adverse effects such as malignant arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality.
In the typical patient with CKD hyperkalemia is brought about by a combination of factors such as acute clinical events, comorbid conditions and medications. The most important risk factor for hyperkalemia is chronic kidney disease, often combined with the use inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The latter are widely used in clinical practice due to their proven benefits in patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease; yet it is often difficult to apply them for chronic management of these conditions because of associated hyperkalemia. Anemia in CKD and ESRD develops as a result of the confluence of relative EPO deficiency, EPO resistance, and absolute and functional iron deficiency. Besides the gradual decline in kidney function, other factors such as chronic inflammation play a prominent role, in engendering anemia of CKD. Anemia is one of the most common abnormalities in patients with CKD and ESRD, and it is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. 
This session will provide an overview of both anemia and hyperkalemia to describe key pathophysiologic mechanisms, risk factors and impact on clinical outcomes.
Expected Learning Outcomes:
Following are learning outcomes expected from the audience at the conclusion of this symposium.
  • Emphasis will be placed on these learning objectives and changes in practice. Examine the prevalence of and risk factors for hyperkalemia and its associated prognosis across healthcare settings
  • Appraise the recent shifts in treatment patterns that have occurred in the management of anemia in CKD
  • Describe commonly applied therapies for anemia and hyperkalemia and understand their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Become familiar with novel treatments for hyperkalemia and anemia, and their role in changing therapeutic paradigms optimizing management.
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